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13 most common causes and symptoms

The seasons, the stage of life we ​​are in, air pollution and various other factors affect the largest organ in the human body: the skin. The number of skin diseases scientifically diagnosed is extensive.

Some skin diseases can be symptoms of other health problems, while others are a direct reflection that something is affecting our “armor”. During the different stages of life, from childhood to old age, the skin reflects all our actions.

Take care to take care of her: the hydration is key, no matter what age and what environment we find ourselves in. As repeated as the idea is, drinking the recommended amount of water is really a precious help. Be sure to seek advice from dermatological professionals to find out how to solve a specific problem.

Sometimes, the problem that affects us may not be exclusive to this medical specialty. We present some of the most common cases of skin diseases that you may suffer from throughout your life.

Most common skin diseases


Acne is an extremely common problem that is estimated to affect around 80% of young people between the ages of 13 and 20. It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles of the face, which are obstructed by increased sebaceous production, which is reflected in pimples and blackheads. Genetic, racial or environmental factors may also be at the origin. Recently the idea that some foods can cause acne has been debunked.

Treatment: it can sometimes be a little difficult to treat, and medical follow-up is important. Dermatology, gynecology and even endocrinology are the specialties that deal with this disease, its causes and consequences. Treatments can be topical, with cleansing creams and lotions (this last factor is very important) or systemic treatment may be necessary, through pills (antibiotics and/or oral contraceptives).


One of the most visible and unpleasant skin diseases. Dandruff, or seborrheic dermatitis, is linked to excess oil on the scalp, through a fungus called malassezia. It can be caused by bacteria, when the hair is poorly washed, by poor diet or even by disturbances in the nervous system. There are always people who are more prone than others to develop dandruff.

Treatment: if the case is persistent and intense, consult a doctor or pharmacist for the best advice. If it is a mild occurrence then try some home remedies.

atopic eczema

A very common disease in children, it is reflected in the inflammation and itching of the skin. It is above all a reaction of the skin to stimuli that, as adults, we are better able to withstand. In about 80% of cases, this skin reaction may be a reflection of asthma and/or allergic rhinitis.

Atopics have rough and dry skin because of a lack of intercellular fat production and an inability to retain water in the horny layer of the epidermis. It can be accompanied by itching, in these lesions that affect babies, especially on the face and scalp.

Treatment: specific care and special hygiene, advised by a dermatologist and pediatrician.


With the scientific name perniosis, the chilblains are an inflammatory response to cold. The lesions, which appear mainly on the fingers and toes, affect mainly women and children. They cause burning and pain, and may progress to ulcers. The biggest risk is exposure to cold.

Treatment: eventually, usually after 2 or 3 weeks, the chilblains will get smaller until they disappear. To prevent them, be sure to wear gloves and warm socks when you are exposed to the cold and use moisturizing or anti-inflammatory balms to alleviate the sensation.


Of the group of skin diseases, they are perhaps the most complex case. Contact eczema is called the reaction that the skin has in contact with the substance that causes the allergy. It is reflected in pimples, hives, redness and itching, and sometimes water blisters or wounds can appear. As a rule, they are not immediate reactions.

Treatment: avoiding the allergen is, of course, the best way to avoid these irritations. Get tested for skin allergies to find out what to avoid by consulting with allergists. Topical treatment involves creams, ointments and pills containing cortisone.


The cause of this skin problem is still unknown. It is reflected by a progressive redness of the face, more pronounced on the cheekbones. It is also a disease that affects more women than men, especially within the Caucasian race.

Treatment: as it is not known what causes rosacea, treatment is based on control. It’s important to consult a dermatologist to find out which products are best to help combat it. Cosmetics and medications containing corticoids, despite helping to relieve redness, can contribute to aggravation. Avoid irritating cosmetics, polluted environments, and exposure to extreme temperatures.

sun intolerance

Controlled sun exposure gives us all the benefits of vitamin D, but ultraviolet radiation absorbed by the skin produces changes in the epidermis and dermis, causing skin diseases. Scalds and the tan itself are short-term damage, but prolonged and cumulative exposure can cause premature aging and cancer.

Exposure to sunlight can also aggravate other skin conditions. Photosensitivity can be reflected in blisters in sensitive zones.

Treatment: mandatory use of sunscreen and avoiding exposure during the most dangerous hours, when the level of ultra violet rays is at its highest. In severe cases it is necessary to avoid exposure altogether. The presence of a professional diagnosis is very important, consult a dermatologist to treat these problems.


An inflammatory disease that, in addition to the skin, can affect joints or nails. It affects about 2% of the population and its cause has not been discovered, but the role of genetic influence and environmental factors in its development is recognized.

The intensity varies, although elements such as stress, alcohol consumption and even changes in the season of the year can aggravate the symptoms. The most common form is psoriasis in pink patches covered with white scales.

Treatment: unfortunately, as it is a chronic problem, treatment is once again based on control, through creams and ointments, systemic medications and treatments with ultraviolet rays. The patient should always be accompanied by the dermatologist and it is possible that there is a need to make changes in lifestyle, in order to have healthier practices.


The most serious case, melanoma is the most aggressive and malignant type of skin cancer. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. This type of cancer results from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin (responsible for skin color).

It can appear in pre-existing moles, so you should be aware of changes in size, color and texture; or the appearance of new signs. Melanoma is linked to suffering from sunburns at different stages of life.

Treatment: again, it is important to repeat that early diagnosis is critical. In these cases, a surgical intervention can help solve the problem.

Dry skin

Also known as cutaneous xerosis, dry skin reflects a lack of water in the outer layer of the skin. It is reflected in the peeling of the skin or in small superficial cracks, as well as in the formation of very fine white lines.

It can cause itching, in reaction to contact with very hot air or water or cold, dry winter wind. There are products that can aggravate the condition.

Treatment: it may be associated with other skin problems, but the use of a good moisturizing cream (applied after bathing) helps. It is also important to avoid the factors that aggravate this condition, exaggerated baths and irritable soaps.


We can find two types of herpes in the family of skin diseases: simple and genital. Both are highly contagious.

Herpes simplex is caused by a virus of the same name, quite common, which is reflected with a reddish inflammation spread out with small grouped water bubbles around the mouth. There may be more severe episodes, accompanied by glandular inflammation and fever.

Genital herpes is similar to cold sores, but occurs in the area in question. It is more exuberant and more uncomfortable also due to the area of ​​the body where it develops. It is part of the group of sexually transmitted diseases.

Treatment: locally applied antivirals, the typical patches for herpes that lessen the symptoms and heal the lesions. In severe cases, medication may be required. The virus carrier should avoid sharing cups, towels and other objects in the most active phase of the disease.


Shingles is a very common disease, but also the target of many home remedies for decades. Caused by the chickenpox virus, it is an illness that 10 to 20% of the population suffers from throughout their lives. After the individual has had chickenpox, the virus lodges in nerve ganglia and remains there. When it does return, usually after a debilitating shock to the immune system, it results in shingles.

The disease is based on pimples concentrated in one area of ​​the body, around a sensory nerve. It causes burning, pain and itching. Lesions can evolve and are more frequent on the trunk and face, always on one side of the body.

Treatment: antiviral pills that, ideally, should be taken within the first 72 hours after the lesions start. Analgesics help relieve pain and it’s important to keep your skin clean.

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